Politics and Government



The official life of a village or city revolves around its executive officer, largely, and the history of its mayor tells much of the story of its civic activities and life. The mayor is the natural leader in improvements, if he be a wise official, and much that is possible in improvement and progress must find initiative in him, and if not initiative at least sanction at his hands.

Lakewood's first mayor - his title as an executive officer was president of the board of trustees - was I.E. Canfield. Mr. Canfield was chosen trustee along with Noble Hotchkiss and William Maile, and in the decision as to the term of service he was cast for the three year term. Later he was named as president of the board and became executive officer of the hamlet, in which capacity he served for three years.

Lakewood was little more than a farming community when incorporated into a hamlet. There were scarce four hundred people within its borders, and with few exceptions, the people making up the population were farmers. With this condition existing it is not to be wondered at that there were few matters of great importance to come up for settlement within the term of office of President Canfield.

Three years after incorporation, however, C.L. Tyler was chosen as trustee and honored with the office of executive. The incorporation of the hamlet, with the opportunities that such incorporation made possible, and the natural beauty of the country, had induced a few people from the city to make homes within the hamlet limits of Lakewood. These people, having moved out from the city where they had enjoyed city privileges, soon began to clamor for improvements that would add to the comfort of home life and prove an incentive for others to follow them.

Property owners who had large land interests also wished to see the homeseekers in the larger city crowding out for homesites in the hamlet, thus making it possible to sell at a good price the many locations for homes in the hamlet.

Enterprising citizens in Lakewood saw the need for improvements, and the possibilities that would accrue. These men, led by Mayor Taylor, set about to provide them. There were two needs that appealed to them - improvements that were necessary to health and comfort, and improvements that would provide beauty of surrounding and pleasure in possession.

In the first class were a water system, sewers and electric lights. And led by Mayor Tyler, these improvements were installed, both under the control and supervision of hamlet officials. The water and sewer systems have been greatly extended since his day, and the electric lighting plant has been sold to a private corporation, but Mayor Tyler and his associates made these conveniences a reality in Lakewood and the extension of the systems but emphasises the necessity for their installation.

Under the second classification comes the boulevard system that is the direct result of the effort for improvement made by Mayor Tyler in the early days of the village's corporate existence. At that time it was possible to secure this public improvement. But if the lake-front section of the village had been privately alloted without the boulevard provided for in the planning, it is a question if the beautiful drive could have been secured later.

Mayor C.L. Tyler was chosen trustee in two campaigns. He served as trustee - and as executive - for six years. As the six years when he served covered a large portion of the formative period in the history of the hamlet it follows a natural sequence that he would have much to do with the development of the village that marks the destiny of Lakewood. All the big events in the history of the city center in these six years of Lakewood's official life; the policies established have many of them elaborated since that day but the plans as mapped out by the leaders in the hamlet life at that time have been a part of the development that has followed.

O.C. Berchtold succeeded Mayor Tyler as executive and served in that capacity for two years. He was succeeded by J.E. Tegardine, who also served two years. During the closing months of Mr. Tegardine's official life as executive plans were perfected for the transition of Lakewood from a hamlet to a village. This was consummated on May 4, 1903, at which time Jos. J. Rowe was chosen mayor. The official family at the time of the incorporation as a village is as follows:

Mayor - Joseph J. Rowe.

Council - Jay C. Andrews, R.F. Edwards, C.E. Newell, W.D. Pudney, C.C. Southern and David Webb.

City Solicitor - G.N. Shaver.

Street Commissioner - Alex McAuley.

Clerk - Henry J. Sensel.



Under the new charter, by which Lakewood is governed, the Mayor is the directing head of the Health Board. He not only directs the work of the department but is responsible for each officer working under his direction.

Dr. W.J. Benner, as inspector of health, brings to the work as professional head of the department a scientific skill and research experience that only years of practice can impart.

A.J. Phelps, as sanitary police, is the executive officer of the department.



The citizens of Lakewood organized themselves into a hamlet, August 31, 1889; it became a village on May 4, 1903; and it became a city January 1, 1910. The hamlet had a population of about 400 when first organized; the Village boasted of about 3,500 inhabitants and the City of Lakewood had grown to a citizenship of 15,181. The last Federal Census Bureau estimates (1933) gave Lakewood 75,400. Unofficial estimates place it now at 80,000.

The following petition to the Comissioners of Cuyahoga County asked incorporation of Lakewood Hamlet in 1889:

"We, the undersigned electors, described and bounded as follows: Commencing at the northeastcorner of the township of Rockport on the bank of Lake Erie, then south on the east side of said township one mile and thirty-five and one-half rods to the center line of Berea street; thence southwest along said center line of Berea street one hundred and seventy-eight rods to Johnson street; thence westerly along the center line of Johnson street two hundred ninety-six rods to the center of warren road; thence westerly one hundred eighty-two rods to the center of No. 19 to the section line; thence south forty-eight rods to the section line between sections Nos. 18 and 19 to the northeast corner of lands owned by M. Hemmings; thence westerly on the north line of Hemming's land and the east line of K. Gabel's lands three hundred and four rods to the center of Rocky River; thence northerly two miles and one hundred twenty rods following the center line of Rocky River to Lake Erie; including the islands; thence easterly three miles and two hundred and nine rods along the south shore of Lake Erie to the place of beginning, embracing within the above boundaries the whole of section 21, 22 and part of sections 17, 18, 19, 20 and 23 in the township Rockport, Cuyahoga County, Ohio.

"Supposed number of inhabitants residing within the above described territory, 1,000. Your petitioners desire that the above territory be incorporated into a hamlet. The name proposed is Lakewood. The persons authorized to act for the undersigned petitioners is I.E. Canfield.

"Signed by the following petitioners: I.E. Canfield, John French, A.W. Jinks, Thomas R. Hird, G.H. Stearns, George F. Marshall, A.B. Allen, John A. Kinney, Richard Edwards, W.D. Pudney, Charles Townsend, Alex. Harter, Julius Kinney, W.L. Lippert, James Howe, F.M. Wagar, A.E. Brown, J. Swinglen, J.F. Hobson, R.H. Fruppe, Bernard Farrell, Alfred French, I.D. Norris, Byron C. Harris, Thos. C. Hall, Chas. H. Schupp, C.F. Atwell, Wallace Gleason, M.T. Thompson, C.H. Henry, Clark Warthen, C.G. Calkins, Lewis Nicholson, A.W. Farmer, John Farrow, E. Nicholson, D. Harris, E. Day, B.W. Coutant, S.S. Hitchens, G. Morgan, R.W. Thompson, F. Mullaly, L.D. French, M.A. Hanna, Thos. Lee, Philip Wanger, W. Maile, C.C. Southern, A. Webb, Chas. Gruingh, Jos. Callahan, Henry W. Elliott, H. Patchen, Allen T. Armstrong, L. Ehort, C.S. Atwell, G.B. Sloat, F. Cook, I.F. Newman, Dan A. Wagar, John Mullay Sr., Alex Stuart, Charles Maile, P.S. Clampith, A.B. Coburn, I.M. Southern, Fred W. Southack, I.A. Kinecy, Ed. Nutting, J.W. Southern, D. Webb, Francis B. Hird, Harry Beach, Geo. Benjamin, S.B. Clampith, I.E. Canfield Jr., John Mullay, Perry Hall, Solon Callahan, H.K. Schupp, C.D. Ashley, D.L. Oviatt, J.V. Kiener, D. Johnson, N. Hotchkiss, John Webb, Simon Murphy, Thos. Alborn, W.N. Phillips, Ami Beckley, M.H. Woodbury, F.H. Wagar, I. Nast, F.H. Cannon, A.H. Zuler, A. Eggert, Albert French, Chas. Peace, John Farmer, Robert Potter, M. French and Frank Haftey."

Prior to May 4, 1903, when Lakewood became a village the executive officers were composed of a Board of Trustees, with one of their number as president or mayor.

After 1903 the mayor and a council were elected by the prople. Terms of office were for a period of two (2) years.

Term of 1889-90-91: I.E. Canfield, mayor.

Term of 1892-93-94: C.L. Tyler, mayor.

Term of 1895-96-97: C.L. Tyler, mayor.

Term of 1898-99: O.C. Berchtold, mayor.

Term of 1900-01: J.H. Tegardine, mayor.

Term of 1902-03: J.J. Rowe, mayor.

Term of 1904-05: J.J. Rowe, mayor; members of council--J.C. Andrews, R.F. Edwards, C.C. Southern, C.E. Newell, W.D. Pudney, Bernard Miller.

Term of 1906-07: Bernard Miller, mayor; members of council--Fred Cook, W.F. Closse, N.C. Cotabish, O.B. Hannan, E.J. Hobday, C.E. Newell.

Term of 1908-09: Bernard Miller, mayor; members of council--Fred Cook, F.H. Miner, Fred Plaat, E.J. Hobday, C.E. Newell, C.W. Tyler.

Term of 1910-11: N.C. Cotabish, mayor; members of council--Chas. G. Burton, J.W. Chrisford, Edw. A. Smith, James Gormsen, B.F. Mills, C.W. Tyler.

Term of 1912-13: J.B. Coffinberry, mayor; members of council--W.A. Bennett, M.J. Earle, James Gormsen, L.E. Kerber, B.F. Mills, Frank V. Reid, Frank L. Thurber.

Term of 1914-15: Clayton W. Tyler, mayor; director of law, R.G. Curren,; director of finance, B.M. Cook; city engineer, E.A. Fisher; memebers of council--W.A. Bennett, William F. Closse, John H. Brown, James Gormsen, H.E. Gresham and James J. Hinslea.

Term of 1916-17: Clayton W. Tyler, mayor; director of law, R.G. Curren; director of finance, B.M. Cook; city engineer, E.A. Fisher; members of council--W.F. Closse, H.E. Gresham, James Gormsen, Walter F. Miller, George Palda.

Term of 1918-19: B.M. Cook, mayor, January 1, 1918 to September 17, 1919 (Deceased). A.O. Guild, mayor, September 18, 1919 to December 31, 1919; director of law, R.G. Curren; director of finance, A.O. Guild; deputy diretor of finance (September 18 to Dec. 31, 1919) Elsie M. Hutchins; city engineer, E.A. Fisher; members of council--Harry S. Hart, James Gormsen, Walter F. Miller, E.A. Wiegand, Thomas B. Armstrong (January 1 to December 1, 1918), L.A. Hildie (December 1, 1918 to December 31, 1919).

Term of 1920-21: L.E. Hill, mayor; director of law, R.G. Curren; director of finance, A.O. Guild; city engineer, E.A. Fisher; members of council--T.B. Armstrong, H.E. Gresham, L.A. Hildie, C.H. Stevens, E.A. Wiegand.

Term of 1922-23: L.E. Hill, mayor; director of law, R.G. Curren; director of finance, A.O. Guild; city engineer, E.A. Fisher; members of council--James Gormsen, Harry S. Hart, L.A. Hildie, Olive B. Knirk, Maude C. Waite, (January 1, to December 31, 1922), Eva C. Saxton (January 1 to December 31, 1923 succeeding Maude C. Waite who was elected to Ohio State Senate).

Term of 1924-25: E.A. Wiegand, mayor; director of law, A.E. Brueckner; director of finance, A.I. Kauffman; city engineer, E.A. Fisher; members of council--James Gormsen, Harry S. Hart, Olive B. Knirk, Fred M. Branch, Chas. A. Heidloff (January 1 to October 20, 1924 - deceased). Harry a Gillis (November 3, 1924 to December 31, 1925).

Term of 1926-27: E.A. Wiegand, mayor; director of law, A.E. Brueckner (January 1 to August 31, 1926), W.L. David (September 1, 1926 to December 31, 1927); director of finance, A.I. Kauffman; deputy director of finance, E.M. Hutchins; city engineer, E.A. Fisher; members of council--C.J. Abell, G.A. Newman, J.B. Hinchliff, Ellen M. Goldenbogen, James Gormsen, (January 1 to November 14, 1926), G.H. Klein (November 15, 1926 to December 31, 1927).

Term of 1928-29: E.A. Wiegand, mayor; director of law, W.L. David (January 1, 1928 to January 6, 1929, R.G. Curren (January 7 to December 31, 1929); director of finance, A.I. Kauffman; deputy director of finance (January 1, 1928 to November 16, 1929 - deceased) Elsie M. Hutchins; city engineer, E.A. Fisher; members of council--Ellen M. Goldenbogen, Olive B. Knirk, James Gormsen, George H. Klein, Harry A. Gillis.

Term of 1930-31: E.A. Wiegand, mayor; director of law; R.G. Curren; director of finance, A.I. Kauffman; deputy director of finance, H.A. Rees; city engineer, E.A. Fisher; members of council--Olive B. Knirk, Morris H. Phillips, James Gormsen, Ford S. Meyers, Lewis C. Reidy.

Term of 1932-33: E.A. Wiegand, mayor (January 1, 1932 to March 14, 1932 - deceased), A.I. Kauffman (March 15, 1932 to December 31, 1933); director of law, R.G. Curren; director of finance (January 1, 1932 to March 14, 1932) A.I. Kauffman; deputy director of finance (January 1, 1932 to March 18, 1932) H.A. Rees, (May 4, 1932 to March 18, 1933) E.W. Biggs; director of finance (March 19, 1932 to December 31, 1933) H.A. Rees; deputy director of finance (April 17, 1933 to December 31, 1933) Morris H. Phillips, James Gormsen, Ford S. Meyers, Joy S. Hurd, Wm. H. Fahrenback, George O. Darmstatter, John Spanur.

Term of 1934-35: A.I. Kauffman, mayor and director of public safety; director of public works; director of law, Robert G. Curren; director of finance, Henry A. Rees; deputy director of finance, Frank E. Lynch; city engineer, E.A. Fisher; building commissioner, B.R. Kimberley; superintendent of street department, E.C. Sargent; superintendent of garbage department, George A. Bush; superintendent of water department, J.E. Quallich; superintendent of parks, A.B. Greenley; superintendent of hospital, C.A. Sharkey; chief of fire department, C.A. Delaney; Chief of police department, L.B. Miller; health commissioner, Dr. W.J. Benner; assistant health officers, A.J. Phelps, Dr. J.J. McCarthy; permit clerk, Elva C. Malling; sinking fund commission, Roy a. Daniels, president, James Dunn, Jr., Harry A Beckett, Fred W. Staffeld, Henry A. Rees, sec'y; civil service commission, Harry S. Hart, president, A.J. Maurer, James J. Polcar, C.S. Huffman, sec'y; city planning commission: Theodore A. Cooper, chairman, Charles G. White, Theo. F. Humphreys, Frank C. Meyers, William R. Bossinger, Ralph L. Bailey, E.A. Fisher, Henry A. Rees, sec'y. Members of council--Joy Seth Hurd, president, James Gormsen, W.H. Fahrenbach, George O. Darmstatter, John Spanur, Hugh K. Dawson, Adam Lintz.

Term of 1936: Amos I. Kauffman, mayor; Henry A Rees, director of finance; director of law, Robert C. Curren; health commissioner, Dr. Wallace Benner; health commissioner, Arthur J. Phelps; building commissioner, B.R. Kimberley; superintendent of street, Edward A. Sargeant; superintendent of parks, A.B. Greenley; city engineer, E.A. Fisher; superintendent of water, John E. Quallich; superintendent of garbage, George A. Bush; deputy director of finance, F.E. Lynch; superintendent of hospital, Elizabeth Harding; chief of police, L.B. Miller; chief of fire department, Charles A. Delaney; members of council--Wm. R. Fairgrieve, Wm. H. Fahrenbach. Grace Spaulding, Coleman Lajcak, James Gormsen, Hugh Dawson, George H. Thompson.

Sinking fund: James J. Dunn, H.A. Beckett, F.W. Staffeld, Roy Daniels. Civil Service Commission: H.S. Hart, James Polcar, C.F. Huffman, A.L. Maurer. Planning Commission: C.G. White, Theodore Cooper, Frank C. Meyers, W.R. Bossinger, Theodore F. Humphreys, Ralph Bailey, E.A. Fisher, Carl Webster. Boxing and Wrestling commission: Paul Johnson, Jack O'Malla, Chief Miller, Henry Rees. Municipal Court: H.J. Williams and Matthew J. Walther, judges. Police Department: L.B. Miller, chief; E.J. Newport, captain; C.J. Cossairt, lieut.; H.R. Peebles, lieut.; C.E. Steiger, sergt.; Carl Webster, police prosecutor; Charles Baum, lieut., H.J. Bethel, sergt.; Herman Lang, capt. secretary of police pension fund.


LAKEWOOD PRESS -- February 7, 1918, Pg. 1

Council, Monday evening, doubled the number of meter readers in the water department and increased salaries all along the line. This means an increase in the cost of running the department of not less than $6,000 a year.

Incidentally a soft berth was created for a son of Art Phelps, health inspector. He was named as "foreman" of meter readers and draws a salary of $115 per month, equal to the salary of the "chief" of meter readers.

Under the old regime meter reading and repair of meters was done by four men. Mr. William Edwards was chief. He drew a salary of $115 a month and the other men approximately $90 a month. The ordinance passed Monday provides for six meter readers at a maximum salary of $90 a month, a foreman of meter readers at $115 a month, and a chief of meter readers at $115 a month.

The reason for increase in salaries is obvious, but no reason was assigned for doubling the force, nor is any apparent. There were no complaints by the former meter readers of too much work; the public was not complaining of inefficiency in the department and the heretofore unheard of surplus of $14,000 in the water fund speaks volumes for the business management of the department. Meters were read not twice, but four times a year and all unusual bills were promptly investigated to learn the causes.

It might be observed, incidentally, that that $14,000 surplus will, for the next two years, nicely take care of the $6,000 a year boost in the department's expenses.

The water superintendent's salary was increased from $2,200 to $2,300; chief clerk's salary from $75 to $100 a month and the assistant clerk's from $60 to $75 a month.

Just where tax payers come in under the scheme mapped out by the administration is apparent--they hold the bag.

63:5 CITY OFFICIALS (1918)

LAKEWOOD PRESS -- March 7, 1918, Pg. 12

The present official family of Lakewood is as follows:

Mayor B.M. Cook

Council Members; Walter F. Miller, president; Thomas B. Armstrong, James Gormsen, Harry Hart, E.A. Wiegand.

Director of finance, A.O. Guild; Miss Elsie M. Hutchins, deputy.

Director of law, R.G. Curren

Director of Health, Dr. W.J. Benner; sanitary officer, A.J. Phelps; bacteriologist, Dr. H.H. Smith.

Director of public works, B.M. Cook

Division of Water; Superintendent, J.G. Peltz

Department of safety; chief of police, P.S. Christensen; chief of fire, J.H. Speddy.

Following is a list of the present police force, and it will be found to be not only efficient, the best looking bunch of the "finest" ever in uniform:

Chief, P.S. Christensen;

Lieutenants, H.C. Lang and L.B. Miller

Detectives, H.J. Amstus and Andrew Kennelly

Patrolman, John M. Hennie, H.J. Swickard, E.J. Newport, Garfield Suhm, R.E. Fuller, Charles S. Maurer, F.W. Meyer, H.S. Gamble, J.C. Ward and Charles Vacha.


(Salaries Raised)

LAKEWOOD PRESS -- September 19, 1918, Pg. 7

More salary raises were forthcoming at the last council meeting on Monday night. On recommendation of Mayor Cook, the salary of the sanitary officer, A.J. Phelps, was increased from $1,500 to $1,700. Council President Walter F. Miller voted in the negative, on the ground that the increase should be made to $1,800 instead of $1,700.

The salaries of inspectors of public improvements were increased from 60 to 70 cents an hour. At present there are eight men working, but the force will soon be reduced as public improvements in Lakewood are almost at an end until after the war.

At a recent meeting, the council made increase in all salaries in the police and fire departments. The increases made this week have been held up, owing to the inability of the councilmen to agree on the figures.

63:7 CITY TO BORROW $30,000

LAKEWOOD PRESS - Nov. 21, 1918, Page 1

At the meeting of the city council last Monday evening an ordinance unanimously passed the third reading, by suspension of the rules, whereby the mayor was authorized to borrow the sum of $30,000 on short time notes to meet the current expenses and other expenditures of the city between December 1, 1918 and March 1, 1919. This sum will be apportioned in the following amounts: $2,300 to the health department, $14,500 to the safety department and $13,200 to the service department. Three certificates of indebtedness will be issued, pledging the credit and good faith of the city for the repayment of the loan.


LAKEWOOD PRESS - Dec. 5, 1918, PAGE 1

The need of financial relief for Lakewood and for practically all municipalities of Ohio is obvious. Such relief can only come through legislation at Columbus. While there will be numerous bills on taxation offered and many plans proposed, the proposal to increase the percentage allowed under the Smith law will receive most attention.

At the city council meeting on Monday night, a resolution was presented directing Mayor Cook to bring the financial situation to the attention of the State Legislature. Incidentally, he was directed to co-operate with other municipalities in procuring relief. This will offer a wide and interesting field for discussion by the new Suburban Civic League, the formation of which Mayor Cook is also authorized to present to other municipalities of the county, protesting against merger or annexation.

This is the taxation ordinance offered at the city council meeting on Monday night, which was referrred to a committee for consideration and a later report:

"Whereas, the city of Lakewood has grown rapidly in the last few years, and will have a great increase in population in the next few years, all of which has called for and will continue to demand the expansion of the various city departments; and,

"Whereas, by reason of the limited amount of money allowed to the city for its operating expenses, the city has been unable to keep pace with the urgent needs of the city, and at present there is deficiency in the public revenues, which, unless relief is obtained, will increase and the city be greatly embarrassed and hindered in its public business; now, therefore, be it

"Resolved, by the council of the city of Lakewood, Ohio, that the mayor be and he is hereby authorized and directed to take such steps as he deems necessary to bring the financial condition of the city to the attention of the governor and state legislature, and to co-operate with other municipalities in requesting the legislature to provide by law for the relief of municipalities and to grant an increase in the amount of money to be allowed for municipal purposes."


LAKEWOOD PRESS - Dec. 5, 1918, Page 1

Council President Walter Miller proposed by resolution at the council meeting Monday night that the salary of the Mayor of Lakewood be increased to $5,000, the increase to become effective on and after Jan. 1, 1920. After some informal discussion, the figures were reduced to $4,500, and the resolution was given its first reading. It must be read at two more meetings of the city council before the end of the year and adopted before New Year in order to fix the salary of the next mayor of Lakewood.

Councilman Hart objected to the resolution, while Miller, Gormsen and Wiegand voted in the affirmative. If the vote had been unanimous the rules could have been suspended as in the case of most ordinances, where no objection is raised. In that case, the matter would have been disposed of off-hand on Monday night. Now the ordinance must receive the three full readings under the rules.

Mayor B.M. Cook is receiving $3,600 at the present time. That cannot be changed during his present term of office. If the increase that is proposed is adopted by the council before the end of this year, it can apply to the salary of the man who is elected next fall as the successor of Mayor Cook.


THE LAKEWOOD PRESS - Dec. 19, 1918, Page 8

When Council President Walter Miller presented the ordinance increasing the salary of the mayor of Lakewood from $3,600 to $4,500, effective Jan. 1, 1920, it could not be adopted at the time. Owing to the objection interposed by Councilman Hart and the vacancy created by the absence of Councilman Thomas H. Armstrong, the two-thirds vote was lacking for the suspension of the rules. The only way therefore for the passage of the salary ordinance was to read it and adopt it at three council meetings. The ordinance received its second reading on Monday night in the absence of Councilman Hart. There will be a special council meeting tonight, when the expectation is that the vacancy created by the resignation of Councilman Armstrong will be filled and the third reading of the ordinance will be completed before the end of the year.

The council ordinance fixing the salary of the law director for next year at $2,000 was presented Monday night, but owing to the parliamentary tangle and in the absence of Councilman Hart, the rules could not be suspended. The ordinance was give its first reading. Director Curren is receiving $2,000 at the present time and no objection has been registered by any member of the council to the renewal of the salary in his case at the same figure.


THE LAKEWOOD PRESS - JAN. 2, 1919, Page 1

It will cost $191,645 to run the city of Lakewood this year. The figures are, of course, exclusive of the much larger expenditures to be made through bond issues for street paving and other major improvements. They are exclusive, too, of the school fund. The tentative figures were reached after the members of the city council had labored for several hours in the committee of the whole on Monday night to compile the figures.

The report, appropriating $191,645, will be embodied in the form of an ordinance to be presented and adopted at the regular council meeting next Monday night. The council appropriations for the past year were $184,009. As a matter of fact, the actual income of the city is estimated at only $175,000, but it has been found impossible to bring these appropriations down to the income this year. If there is a small deficit it will show in the December budget at the end of the year, when it may be necessary for the city to make a short-time note to bridge over.

The increase in appropriations of $7,636 is due entirely to the increase in the fire department. In two out of the four municipal departments the appropriations are smaller this year than last year. For instance, the appropriations for the health department total only $5,700 against $6,895 last year. The difference is due to the expenses of the emergency hospital, which will be discontinued this year. The appropriations in the service bureau, which covers the street repairs, is $81,895 against $90,294 last year. The main reduction comes in the smaller amount of street repairing that will be required this year.

There is a slight increase in the general fund, from $17,320 to $19,000. This fund covers most of the salary lists of the city. There is an increase in appropriations for the public safety departments from $69,500 to $85,050. Ten men have been added to the fire department and one new fire house has been opened on Detroit avenue, near Rocky River. Two more policemen will be added. That is, the department will, it is expected, be maintained up to its official quota of nineteen men, whereas only 17 men are working at the present time.

Following the official summary of the appropriations on the four departments, to be passed on by the council next Monday night: General fund, $19,000; health fund $$5,700; safety fund $85,050; service fund, $81,895; total, $191,645. The appropriations last year are given for comparison: General fund, $17,320; health fund, $6,895; safety fund, $69,500; service fund, $90,394; total, $184,000.

It is possible there may be some slight change in the figures that were reported at the conclusion of the council meeting last Monday night. These changes, if made, must be proposed in the form of amendments that must be added to the report of the committee of the whole, which forms the basis of the official ordinance to be passed on at the first meeting in January. It is not known, however, that any further changes in figures are to be proposed.

Several minor increases of salaries were made at the council meeting on Monday night. The most important was the increase in the salary of the councilmen from $300 to $420 a year. This increase will not be effective until the end of the terms of all members of the present council. Like the proposed increase in the salary of the mayor, from $3,600 to $4,500, adopted at the prior meeting, the higher salaries of councilmen are not effective until Jan. 1, 1920.

The salary of City Engineer E.A. Fisher was increased from $2,800 to $3,000, and the salary of Health Officer, Dr. W.J. Benner was increased from $1,000 to $1,200. These two latter salaries are effective immediately. A salary was provided for the new building inspector, which it is expected will be required with increased building in Lakewood this season.

There is a decrease in the amount of water rentals to be paid to the city of Cleveland. The payments this year will be $94,800 against $100,712 last year. This decrease is more nominal than real, however. Last year, Lakewood was required to make an additional advance deposit of $5,000 to the water fund of the city of Cleveland. As a matter of fact, all water rentals are paid by Lakewood to Cleveland in a lump, while Lakewood collects these rentals from its individual property owners. No provision need be made in the tax levy for water rentals, therefore.


THE LAKEWOOD PRESS - Jan. 23, 1919, Page 1

The annual report of City Engineer, E.A. Fisher was submitted to Mayor B.M. Cook last week and by him transmitted to the city council on Monday night. The report has a double interest, showing the program of the last year that has been completed and the promise of the future that indicates Lakewood progress will not stop.

Discussing the work that has been completed last year, the subject of improvements is divided into four heads. In the year the city department supervised and completed paving of 53,383 yards, costing $195,249.53.

The principal sewer construction work was the building of main sewers in Riverside road and Hilliard avenue. The first is an interceptor sewer, draining the area south of Madison avenue from Bunts road to Riverside road to the southern line, and including 740 acres in the village of West Park, which was a matter of contract between the city and village. The Berea road sewer is started and a portion is completed. The total value of city sewers constructed was $140,506.33.

Water works construction was small, owing to government restrictions. The setting of extra hydrants in Detroit avenue in connection with new paving and the connection of dead ends in Franklin court were the main items. The cost was $12,339,46.

There was spent in grading and sidewalks $23,919,87. The city laid 42,436 square feet of new work paving sidewalks and relaid 109,748 old walks.

In addition, the county started and partially completed the most important improvement of the year, the paving of Detroit avenue, of which the city contributed $180,000. In the line of general engineering, plans have been made for the interceptor sewer north of Lake avenue in proposed Edgewater drive, to drain 301 acres and to eliminate troubles in the Clifton boulevard system.

Interest in the proposed work of the year will be greater, inasmuch as all restrictions imposed by war conditions have been removed, and much is planned that has been held up in the past year. The projected work totals the large sum of $1,393,080. This is the paving program:

Marlowe, 2,870 square yards, $18.350; 600 yards, $30,000; Shaw, 2,415 yards, $12,600; Woodford, 2,415 yards, $12,600; Rio, 1,050 yards, $6,000; Andmar 4,500 yards, $31,700; Belle, 4,320 yards, $36,500; Idlewood, 1,450 yards, $7,350; Clifton boulevard, 82,000 yards, $473,000; Madison avenue, 47,000 yards, $305,500; Detroit avenue extension, 1,800 yards, $14,500; Chester, 3,070 yards, $15,000; Olive (grading), $4,000, total, $993,540.

The proposed sewers are: Interceptor, River to Webb, $154,000; Olive, Hilliard to Margaret, $17,300; total $171,300.

Water mains: Olive, $5,000 ; Fischer road, $41,500; Detroit avenue, hydrants, $7,750; total $54,250.

Opening and extension of Franklin avenue, $75,000.

Grand total for improvements, $1,394,080.

These general suggestions are submitted as recommendations for the work of the coming season:

"Division Administration. - During the last year the war has depleted our forces to such an extent that at times the accomplishment of necessary work seemed hopeless, but we have managed to complete the work $2,000 below our appropriation by speeding up the division. At times the division was reduced to three men and for a few days to two men. Next season's work, if carried out as per schedule, will require a material increase in the working force of the division.

"Suggestion 1. - We wish to point out again that the city should own and operate a set of offices comparable with the demands of the work and class of citizenry of Lakewood. The people have voted $2,000,000 for public school buildings, yet the administration of public business is done in a building that is a disgrace to the community. The fire risk to valuable records and the lowering of efficiency of the various departments due to lack of proper heating and ventilation, to say nothing of the loss in civic pride, warrants some action looking toward a new city hall.

"Suggestion 2. - We are still of the opinion that Lakewood should own and operate its own water plant. The city of Cleveland will eventually build to the west of us in order to care for the growing suburbs, and Lakewood must continue to pay a profit on water which could be delivered at a rate fixed by her own costs of operation, maintenance and bonds.

"Suggestion 3. - We still urge a complete underground survey while this city is still young, as a measure which will pay for itself many times over in the days to come.

"The division of street space for uses to which streets are put is receiving more and more attention from municipalities which are alive to this necessity, and in the event of rapid transit subways and other underground problems, the values of these maps would be incalculable.

"Suggestion 4. - There are a number of lots blocking the extension of Athens avenue from Halstead to Carabel, all of them (with the expection of half a street along property of The Templar Motors Co., and the entrance of Halstead street) lying between Baxterly avenue and Carabel avenue. It is advisable to acquire these lots while they are still vacant.

"There are other knots in our street system which demand concentrated attention in order to insure continuity of through streets. These main thoroughfares are of vital importance to the city in meeting transportation problems and should be carried through without fear or favor and with an eye single to the future needs.

"The extension of Delaware avenue from Niagara, to connect with West Adams, and the continuance of this street through to Brown road, which goes south to Triskett road in West Park, thus affording a direct cross street from the proposed bridge across Rocky River at Delaware avenue, is of vital importance.

"Equally desirable is the extension of Fischer road westerly from Warren road to Carabel, on our south corporation line, and from Carabel to Kyle avenue, at a point farther south.

"The extension of Kyle avenue from Hilliard to Madison avenues would afford a much needed cut-off between these two streets and give a continuous street from Detroit street via Woodward avenue to Fischer road.

"The extension of Northwood from the alley west of Webb to West Clifton boulevard, is a much needed improvement, and was once begun but never consummated.

"The problem of Edgewater drive is fast becoming a thorn in the flesh to certain citizens who are awaiting developments on this boulevard, and it is our opinion that steps should be taken to acquire a right of way along this route, believing that the citizens interested will finally see the immense advantage of this boulevard not only as furnishing a right of way for a much needed interceptor, but also a means of developing valuable land into usable real estate.

"Suggestion 5. - Park System. We have done considerable work in surveying and laying out land acquired for park purposes. This work involved the detail survey for Rhodes property and the park on Madison avenue, for which we have developed plans for final improvement.

In the case of Lincoln park, formerly known as Scenic park, the first necessity appears to be protection of the wash banks from the erosion of the river, and this can be accomplished in two ways: first, by revetment wall; second, by dredging the river. Probably the best solution lies in a combination of these two, and it is possible that the help of the county park board may very properly be enlisted in securing the needed improvement.


THE LAKEWOOD PRESS - Feb. 13, 1919, Page 6

Original examination for the position of stenographer and clerk in the Department of Finance will be held February 26th, 1919 at 7:30 P.M. in the Court room of the Police Station on Warren road.

The subjects for the examination will be writing, spelling, arithmetic and taking dictation and transcribing the shorthand notes.

All applicants must be females and must be residents of the City of Lakewood, O.

The salary of the position is $80.00 permonth.

Application Blanks may be had at the City Hall, Lakewood, O., and must be filed at that place not later than noon of February 25th, 1919.

The state law provides for a fee of fifty cents for this examination.


F.R. Thrall,




In the United States, in many of the larger cities, there are courts designated municipal courts, with statutory jurisdiction in criminal or civil cases, or both, usually limited not only in amount, but by the requirement that suits can only be instituted against residents, and crimes prosecuted which are committed within the city. There are some exceptions as to jurisdiction in certain cases.

Municipal courts are created by an act of the General Assembly. General Code Sections 1579-910 to 1579-957 relate to the municipal court of Lakewood.

The act creating the municipal court of Lakewood became effective June 20, 1927. It provides for a municipal court with criminal and civil jurisdiction. Two judges are elected by the voters. They receive two thousand dollars ($2,000) per annum from the county and such further compensation from the city of Lakewood as the council may prescribe. All such compensation is payable in monthly installments. The city of Lakewood, by ordinance, has prescribed its portion of the salary as three thousand dollars ($3,000) per annum, making a total salary for each of the judges of five thousand dollars ($5,000) per year. The term is for six years each.

Any vacancy in the office of municipal judge, other than temporary absence or disability, shall be filled by appointment by the Governor until a successor is elected and qualified.

The jurisdiction of the court is exercised within the limits of the city of Lakewood and the act creating the court defines in detail the jurisdiction. The jurisdicition of the court is limited to claims not exceeding one thousand dollars ($1,000). The court has certain jurisdiction within the limits of the county in civil and criminal cases.

The act provides for a clerk, deputy clerks, bailiff and deputy bailiffs and contains a complete procedure for the operation of municipal court.

The director of law is the prosecuting attorney in the municipal court. He may detail such of his assistant directors of law as he may deem proper to assist in such work.


Criminal cases which come before the municipal court relate to the violations of ordinances of the city and of the state laws. Under the ordinances when imprisonment is not a part of the punishment which may be imposed by the court, the court may hear the case and decide it without a jury. When the accused, if convicted, may be imprisoned as a part of the punishment, he may demand a jury trial.

In felony cases the court is authorized to hear a part of the case, sufficient to show that there is probable cause for holding the prisoner for trial. The prisoner may demand a preliminary hearing, or may waive examination, such prisoner, if there is probable cause, is bound over to the grand jury of the court of common pleas.

The difference between a felony and a misdemeanor is that a felony is a crime for which on conviction the prisoner may be imprisoned in the penitentiary or may be put to death. All other crimes are misdemeanors.


This is a county court, with both civil and criminal jurisdiction. The judges are elected for a six year term.


This is a county court. It has jurisdiction of all matters relating to the administration of the estates of deceased persons, guardians, trustees, etc. This court issues the marriage licenses. This is a very busy court and one of the most important.


This is a country court. It has jurisdiction of all children under sixteen charged with offenses against the law. It has also jurisdiction in neglect of children and certain criminal jurisdiction.


This court is composed of three judges and its jurisdiction extends throughout the county. Generally its duties are to review cases brought to it under error proceedings from the lower courts. In certain cases it has original jurisdiction and may hear the case, which may be begun in that court. It is a very important court and in a great many causes is the court of last resort.


Seven judges compose this court. Only cases of a certain kind are heard by this court. Generally only cases involving a constitutional question, or a question of great public interest, may be carried to the Supreme Court. The judges are elected by electors of the entire state, and serve for six years. It meets in Columbus.


The United States District Court, two judges, is located in Cleveland. The judges are appointed by the president and hold office for life or during good behavior. Its juridiction applies to the acts of life or during good behavior. Its jurisdiction applies to the acts of Congress and causes arising under the constitution of the United States.

The United States Circuit Court, three judges, appointed by the president holds its sessions in Cincinnati.

The United States Supreme Court, nine judges, appointed by the president for life or during good behavior, hold its session at Washington, D.C. It has extensive jurisdiction and may review certain decisions of the Supreme Court of any state.

(This outline is not intended to be complete, but will give a general idea of the courts in which Lakewood people may be concerned.)



(Library File)

The charter of the city of Lakewoos provides that the salary of the mayor shall not be less than $6,000 per annum, but the salary may be changed by ordinance of council, provided that such ordinance must be passed at least one year prior to the beginning of the term of the mayor to be effected there by.

Under the provisions the council adopted ordinance No. 3165, on December 19, 1930, increasing the salary of the mayor to $8,000 per year beginning January 1, 1932.

Consideration of the question of an increase in the salary of the mayor was given by the charter commission appointed to prepare an amendment to the charter commission appointed to prepare an amendment to the charter of the city of Lakewood, which was submitted at the election November 5, 1929, and was adopted. At the same election the question of the approval of a bond issue for one million dollars for a city hospital was submitted.

It was obvious that if the city undertook to construct and operate a city hospital that the already heavy duties of the mayor would be increased and the utmost skill and energy required to successfully carry forward such an enterprise. Therefore the charter commission recommended that the salary be fixed at $6,000 per year and that the council be authorized to provide for such an increase was proper.

At the election November 5, 1929, the voters approved the issuance of bonds for the hospital and accordingly the great project of the city hospital became one of the problems to be solved by the city administration and increased greatly the duties of the office of mayor. The Council, therefore in considering the subject felt warranted in increasing the salary to $8,000 per annum, which would appear to be reasonable compensation for the services to be performed. This compensation, however, does not go in effect until January 1, 1932.



(Library File)

A partial list of improvements recently completed in Lakewood and a statement of services rendered by the various departments is as follows:

PAVING -- Together with Cleveland and Cuyahoga County, Fischer Road has been paved with a forty-foot pavement. This is the last street that the city had on its list for paving and will help in the development of the southerly section of the city.

STREET WIDENING -- Detroit has been widened at certain points and land has been acquired for further widening. The pavement along Detroit Avenue has been widened and dangerous intersections widened and paved.

STREET REPAIRS -- Street repairs have been made throughout the entire city.

RELIEF SEWERS -- Relief sewers have been installed and connected with the interceptor sewer in Belle and Nicholson Avenues.

HEALTH DEPARTMENTS -- The Health Department is giving good service in all of its divisions. Lakewood has won national recognition for the health conditions. This is made possible because the department is keeping a close check which helps to keep a community clean, sanitary and healthful.

FINANCE DEPARTMENT -- This department has administered the affairs of the department in such a way that the commendation of the State Examiner and the County Auditor's office has been received.

LAW DEPARTMENT -- The Law Department has rendered valuable service in looking after the legal affairs of the city, and the record established is evidence of the fine work done by this department.

BRIDGE APPROACH -- Negotiated with the County Commissioner and had the county widen the Lakewood approach of Rocky River Bridge, which is a big help in the traffic situation at that point.

PART TIME FOR CERTAIN EMPLOYERS -- Lakewood was the first municipality to adopt the stagger system of employment in connection with public environment. By this plan unemployed men were given part time employment which helped materially in keeping down expenditures in connection with outdoor and poor relief work, in spite of reduced income by reason of delinquecy in tax payments and the additional burdens placed on us because of economic conditions.

WATER MAIN CONNECTIONS -- Water main connections in accordance with the National Board of Underwriters recommendation have been made in Franklin Boulevard at several different locations.

SIDEWALK REPAIRS -- Sidewalk repairs have been under way constantly.

GRADE CROSSINGS -- The eliminations of the New York Central grade crossing at Highland Avenue and Berea Road has been completed by Cleveland, Lakewood and the New York Central Company jointly, at a total expense of approximately one million dollars. Concrete crossings have been provided along the Nickel Plate Railroad, and automatic warning signals erected at all crossings, giving a uniform protection for all crossings day and night.

PARKS AND PLAYGROUNDS -- Parks have been improved. Many additional tables and benches have been added. Additional playground apparatus has been provided. Three additional tennis courts were placed in service at Lakewood Park. The skating rink at Lakewood Park has been enlarged. Ball diamonds have been put in good condition. New comfort station has been erected in Lakewood Park. Provided added toilet facilities and dressing rooms for use of the children in connection with the wading pool. Completely constructed the horseshoe courts.

POLICE DEPARTMENT -- New motor equipment was purchased for the entire department and equipped with radio which operates with the Cleveland Station. This arrangement has been very helpful to both Lakewood and Cleveland. Provided for fourteen traffic school guards at school houses, thereby relieving police officers for active police duty.

FIRE DEPARTMENT -- This department has close connection with all work in connection with Fire Prevention and by its record has earned not only the commendation of the National Board of Firewriters, resulting in the reduction of rates and the saving of many thousands of dollars in insurance but has also made it possible for the Chamber of Commerce to win the National Award in National Fire Prevention and Fire Waste Contest; thus giving the city first place in the nation in this respect.



(Library File)

The Lakewood Civil Service Commission consists of three members, who serve for a term of three years.

The Civil Service of the city is divided into unclassified and classified service. The unclassified service includes all elected officials, all directors of departments, members of boards or commissions, a clerk of the council, secretary of the Civil Service Commission and unskilled labor. For these positions no examination is required. The classified service includes all positions not included in the unclassified service.

The Commission prescribes the rules for the classified service, keeps a record of its proceedings and examinations, which are open to public inspection, and is governed by the provisions of the state law with reference to the Civil Service.

From time to time, as positions in the classified service are to be filled, examinations are held by the Commission for such positions and they certify to the appointing officer the names of three eligible persons for the various positions. From the three certified as eligible, the appointing officer may select the employee.

The law provides that the character of the examination and the marking of the application rests entirely with the Civil Service Commission.

Employees in the classified service, when removed or suspended, may appeal to the Commission, whose decision is final, except as to policemen and firemen who appeal to Court of Common Pleas.



(Library File)

Dedicated to Health and Safety of Lakewood.

October 7, the new plant for the disposal of garbage and combustible rubbish, was dedicated by appropriate ceremony to the health, safety and general welfare of the city of Lakewood and its inhabitants.

Mayor Edward A. Wiegand presided, and explained the purpose of the plant, and called upon various persons for remarks and especially emphasized the importance of the plant as a contribution of the city to fire prevention, by providing the means for the disposal of combustible rubbish, and to preserving the public health by promptly disposing of garbage in a sanitary manner.



(Library File)

The problem of garbage disposal has been given a great deal of attention by the officials of Lakewood for a period of years. Part of the time the garbage was disposed of by trucking it on city trucks to the plant of the J.L. Stadler Company, Cleveland, and paying the company a rate per ton for taking the garbage after it was delivered by the city. This called for transportation of all garbage for a distance of about seven miles through the streets of the city of Cleveland and the payment of large sums to the company for the disposal of the garbage.

Another method, more recently used was to deliver the garbage to a contractor who operated a hog farm in Medina County and who took the garbage on his trucks from the city of Lakewood and fed it to the hogs raised on his farm in Medina County. The city paid this contractor a rate per ton for taking the garbage from the city of Lakewood. The city collected all garbage and delivered it at a point on Hird Avenue. This method has not been satisfactory.

The council after careful consideration and inspection at incinerator plants at Toronto, Buffalo, Niagara Falls, New York, Pittsburgh, Connellsville, anf other places decided to construct an incinerator plant on Berea Road on property owned by the city for the disposal of garbage and combustible rubbish by cremation.

This plant has just been completed and was dedicated with appropriate ceremony October 7. The plant cost approximately one hundred thousand dollars. It is the latest and most scientific method of disposing of waste material and will be of great benefit to the city, in that garbage and combustible rubbish can be promptly disposed of; eliminating all menace to health of the community and removing the danger of fire from combustible rubbish stored in and about residential and business premises.



(Library File)

The Lakewood charter amendment of November 5, 1929, provides that the mayor of the City of Lakewood shall be elected for a term of four years beginning January 1, 1932.

Only one vote for a candidate for the office of mayor is permitted. The provision of the charter for a first, second and third choice has been cancelled.

Importance of Office of Mayor

The executive and administrative powers of the city are vested in the mayor, the directors of departments and other administrative officials provided for in the charter of ordinance. The mayor is the chief executive official of the city. He is ex-officio director of public safety, which includes the divisions of police, fire and health and is director of public works.

The department of public works is organized under seven divisions including engineering and construction; streets, sewers and side walks; parks and public grounds; water permits; refuse collection and disposal and franchise and public service.

The mayor appoints the director of law and director of finance with the approval of the council. These officials are not subject to the Civil Service law. The mayor also makes all other appointments under the provisions of the charter and of the ordinances adopted by the council. He has no jurisdiction over the employees of the Municipal Court or of the public schools.

The mayor is president of the board of trustees of the Lakewood City Hospital and has power to appoint six trustees for the hospital board, subject to the approval of the council. The mayor by virtue of his office is president of the board of trustees and the commissioner of health of Lakewood constitutes the eighth member of the board.

The Board of Trustees has the entire control and management of the hospital and establishes the rules for its government and the admission of persons to its privileges, and annually appoints the professional staff and employs of the city hospital are subject to the Civil Service law.

All expenditures of money in connection with the operation of the city hospital must be authorized by the council, and all receipts of money for the city hospital must be turned into the department of finance for the city of Lakewood.

From the foregoing enumeration of the duties of the mayor it will be seen that he is for all purposes a city manager chosen by vote of the people and is responsible directly to the electors. He has greater authority than many city managers in that he has has the power to veto ordinances adopted by the council, which can then pass the measure over the veto by a two-thirds vote.

The mayor, however cannot expend any money until authorized by the council. He cannot enter into any contract on behalf of the city until the council, by ordinance or resolution, has authorized him to do so.

The mayor is ex-officio director of public safety. This department is divided into divisions of fire, police, health, building inspection and smoke inspection and regulation.

The mayor makes all needful rules and regulations for the government of the department and the several divisions thereof and is charged with the duty of enforcing within the limits of the city all police, sanitary and other similar regulations prescribed by laws or ordinances.

63:21 MAYOR


(Library File)

The Lakewood charter requires the mayor to devote all of his time during business hours to the duties of his office, and such others as may be necessary.

Of course the hours of the day are busy and then there are many council meetings at night. Most public meetings are held at night and many of these must be attended by the mayor. Many times he is called upon for an address on some subject of public interest and to speak for the city as its official head.

The demands to be made during the next year will be very heavy. Problems of help for the unemployed will be pressing. Taxation with all its complications, must be considered seriously.

All departments of the city will be affected by reduced receipts income. It will be a year of great anxiety, of unusual activity of great importance for the city.



(Library File)

The city charter, as amended November 5, 1929, provides that the salary of mayor shall be $6,000 per year and that the council may raise the salary by adopting an ordinance al least one year before the term begins, for which the increase is to take effect. It is clear that no raise can be made to effect the salary of the mayor while he is in office. One year before he takes office the salary is fixed for the full term.

On this subject, the record of the council proceedings shows the action taken.

Excerpt From Minutes Of Council

December 15, 1930

Motion by Mrs. Knirk, seconded by Mr. Phillips, that an ordinance be drafted providing for a salary of $7,000 per annum for the Mayor effective January 1, 1932 in conformity with the Charter.

After some discussion there was an ammendment by Mr. Reidy, seconded by Mr. Phillips, that the motion be amended to increase the salary from $7,500 to $8,000

The question on the amendment was called for and resulted:

Yeas: Knirk, Myers, Phillips, Reidy.

Nays: Gormsen

The vote on the motion as amended resulted:

Yeas: Knirk, Myers, Phillips, Reidy

Nays: Gormsen

Accordingly ordinance No. 3165 was adopted December 1930, increasing the salary of the mayor to $8,000 per year beginning January 1, 1932. This does not increase the salary during the present term. It applies only to the term of the mayor elected Nov. 3, 1931.



(Library File)

Another contract of great importance has been negotiated successfully by Mayor Wiegand with the city of Cleveland for furnishing water through master meters to the city of Lakewood and its inhabitants for a period of ten years July 1, 1931.

It will be recalled that the city of Cleveland proposed to greatly increase the water rate to the city of Lakewood and other suburbs and that all the suburbs united in opposing the excessive increase proposed by the city of Cleveland. The suburbs employed an engineer to check all the figures offered by the city of Cleveland and to represent the suburbs in questions of engineering involved in the management and enlargement of the Cleveland water system. As a result of these negotiations by Mayor Wiegand the rate was finally agreed upon and a contract was approved October 5, by the council of the city of Lakewood which fixes the rate to be paid by the city of Lakewood to the city of Cleveland at 80 cents per thousand cubic feet.


This contract calls for an extension of water service of the city of Cleveland to the various suburbs throughout the county and to expand within a stated period the sum of twelve million dollars for improving the water system and making extensions. An adequate supply of water for Lakewood is thus insured.

This will avoid the necessity of Lakewood establishing its own water works. To have established such individual water system would have called for the spending of a large sum of money, requiring a bond issue, and great effort in order to have the plant completed promptly.


LAKEWOOD COURIER - January 12, 1933 Pg. 1

Basing its estimate on an 85 per cent tax collection, Lakewood council pared $115,000 from operation costs and balanced its 1933 budget at an adjourned session Tuesday night.

Greatest opposition to the council's method of "making the cloth fit" came from the fire department, each member of which lost $450 in annual pay. The same reduction was given members of the police department.

A resolution from the Lakewood police department stated that the department felt that the budget was a job for the council and the officers and men would accept whatever plan it worked out. C.A. Delaney, chief of the fire department, told the council his men were not satisified with the reduction of $450.

"We held a meeting this morning," Delaney said. "All members, except four, were present. We agreed unanimously that whatever cut must be made in this department should be pro rated amont the men thus maintaining the present base rate salary."

Delaney was asked if this meant that his men would receive no pay for dayoffs and vacations.

"That's right," he answered.

Only one councilman, John Spanur, was in favor of this plan.

Delaney told the council that Shaker Heights had drafted an ordinance similar to the plan he suggested.

"Will the county auditor approve it?" the mayor asked.

Delaney said he didn't know.

Mayor Kauffman said it was not a question of bookkeeping alone but pointed out that salary payment must operate the same in both departments.

"The problem is to get the county auditor to approve the ordinance," Kauffman said.

Councilman James Gormsen pointed out that it was impossible to guarantee tax collection.

"There's no use in kidding anybody that they're going to get more money than we can collect," he said.

Law director Durren pointed out that the charter provides but one way to settle the budget and that the council had followed that method.

A taxpayer in the audience suggested that they keep the present setup for 90 days.

Mayor Kauffman questioned the taxpayers knowledge of operating a municipality when the latter suggested that the city be run in the red.

"We're going to live within our means," the mayor stated emphatically. The crowd applauded.

Gormsen proposed an amendment giving a 20 per cent cut to all members of the fire department from the top down. The motion lost 5 to 2, Spanur backing Gormsen.

Gormsen tried a similar motion when the police salary ordinance was read. Again Spanur and Gormsen lost.

The work of reading the salary ordinances speeded up at this point. Employees in the $1,000 to $1,199 bracket, won cuts of 5 per cent; $1,200 to $1,499 were cut 10 per cent; $1,500 to $1,999 were cut 15 per cent and all above $2,000 received cuts of 20 per cent.

Gormsen asked the council if a head of the engineering department was needed, now that all the city work was done.

Phillips turned the question over to City Engineer Fisher.

Fisher said extensive improvements in the city sewage system were contemplated as soon as funds would permit. He said the records in his office were in bad shape and it would take considerable work to straighten them out.

"It would cost the city a lot of money to hire a consulting engineer to go and negotiate for gas and water rates," Fisher said.

The council seemed satisfied that Fisher was needed and passed the salary ordinance without opposition.

Councilman Fahrenbach asked if there wasn't some way that the school board could pay an annual $8,000 water bill and also pay for school guards. Phillips said the matter would be discussed at a later meeting.


LAKEWOOD COURIER -- August 24, 1933. Pg. 1

With 500 families dependent in a great measure upon the wages they receive for labor in the city's street maintenance department, the directing of this department is no simple matter.

This arduous job rests upon the broad shoulders of Edward Sargent, Lakewood's street commissioner, who from appearance might once have been an all-American football star, but who today is concerned primarily that the men, who seek to maintain their self-respect by working for a few days each month and thus be able to maintain in as far as possible their home and family, each receive a fair deal.

He explained that the "rotating" system used to pick men for work on certain days is not 100 per cent perfect, but he regarded it as a systematic method to insure fairness.

There are 606 men on the work list of the street maintenance department at the present time. Each of these men work two days, and there are three shifts each week, with an average of 66 men per shift at the present time.

On Monday of each week all the men wishing employment that week congregate behind the fire station on Warren Road, near Detroit. Mr. Sargent reads out the names on the Monday-Tuesday list. If anyone fails to respond when their name is called, they are automatically dropped from the active work list until they report. If there are ten in the Monday-Tuesday list who fail to respond when their name is called, then Mr. Sargent will pick the first ten men on the Wednesday-Thursday list and transfer them to the Monday-Tuseday list. This of course automatically pushes the first ten of the Friday-Saturday list into the Wednesday-Thursday list, and permits picking up ten men from the extra list for Friday-Saturday work. Mr. Sargent pointed out that sometimes a foreman's needs, possibly even for a week straight, a tradesman of a certain line, such as a bricklayer, and any bricklayers available thereof would be drafted into service for the entire period needed, even though it might mean the elimination of one man from the list for that week. He declared this was necessary in the interests of efficiency. He noted that seldom did a man receive a call on the following week, if he worked on a Friday-Saturday, but nearly always received a call at the following Monday's choosing, so that it is imperative that men working on the last two days of the week report on a week from the Monday following.

This great list of men will average four or more days work per month during the present season. They work eight hour days (except on Saturday, and then only four hours) and receive 50 cents per hour for their labor.

Lakewood's commissioner of streets has a big job, but a big man is attempting to do this job honestly, efficiently and to the satisfaction of all.



1579-956 - 1579-957.

1579-956. Successor to mayors' court and justices court of Lakewood city and Rockport township.-

The municipal court shall be the successor of the mayors' court of the city of Lakewood, and of the city and justices of the peace courts in the city of Lakewood and Rockport township, Cuyahoga county. The work of said tribunals shall be merged in and continued by said municipal court and all cases and proceedings pending therein on the first day of January, 1928, shall be determined and proceed to judgment in the municipal court as though the same had been commenced therein. All moneys, dockets, records, documents, papers, files and other property belonging to or in possession of said tribunals, or any of the officers thereof, shall be transferred to the custody of the clerk and bailiff of the municipal court and kept preserved by them in the same manner as like property, papers and records in said municipal court; provided, however, that all costs, earned and entered on said justices of the peace dockets, that are collected by the clerk of the municipal court subsequently, shall be held by said clerk and remitted to the justice of the peace or constables, as the case may be, who are entitled thereto as fees for services rendered prior to the abolishment of said officers. (112 v.80, Pgh. 47, Eff. June 20, 1927.)

1579-957. Abolishment of certain courts and offices.-

On and after the first day of January, 1928, the office of judge of the police or mayor's court of the city of Lakewood, the offices of justice of the city and justice court of the city of Lakewood and Rockport township, Cuyahoga county, shall be and the same are hereby abolished. (112 v. 81, Pgh. 48, Eff. June 20, 1927.)



Editor's Note:

E.A. Fisher, who has been City Engineer of the City of Lakewood since the inception of this department over 22 years ago reveals in his article the important part played by the department in the growth of the City of Lakewood. Fisher besides serving as City Engineer is a member of the Lakewood City Plan Commission, Cuyahoga County Plan Commission, American Society of Municipal Engineers, National Society of Professional Engineers, International Association of Public Works Officials, Past President of Cleveland Engineering Society, Ohio Sewage Conference Board, Director of Ohio Planning Conference, and Director City Division of American Road Builders Association. His article is complete and covers a wide scope of the multitudinous activities so necessary in a city engineering department.

In the year 1914, and during the administration of the Hon. Clayton W. Tyler, Mayor, the City of Lakewood established its own Engineering Department.

Previous to that year, engineering work had been done on the basis of fees which we charged as a percentage of the construction cost of work. Any other engineering work was paid for on an agreed price and was in addition to the persentage fee.

After a rather lively debate in Council, establishment of the Engineering Department was authorized and civil service examinations held for the positions created. Out of some forty applicants for the positions of City Engineer and Assistant City Engineer, E.A. Fisher and H.J. Repp were selected for the respective positions, each standing highest on the list. These men took office on April 1, 1914.

The immediate problems facing them was the completion of the organization of the department, the continuation of the work in progress and formulation of future work.

At that time sonsiderable paving was under way, some sewer work, notably the completion of the main sewer on Madison avenue.

Two major problems faced the department; the building of the new sewage treatment plant or the rehabilitation of the plant and a serious water shortage during the summer months.

A careful study of the the sewage treatment problem indicated that the old plant, while of good design and sufficient for the period for which it was built, was now insufficient in size and not capable of economic enlargement and obsolete as to method of treatment.

Accordingly, in 1915, plans were prepared for a new sewage treatment plant on the old site and contracts let for its construction. Coupled with the plant was the problem of disposing of the effluent in some place other than Rocky River. The final solution was the construction of the outfall sewer, which is an inverted siphon from the plant to Rocky River Bridge, a tunnel section about eighty-five feet deep from Rocky River Bridge to Lake Erie and a submarine section fifteen hundred feet long into Lake Erie.

The department, working with the concrete pipe manufacturers, devised and pioneered a submarine concrete pipe and special joint which was the first to be used in this country and was so successful that it attracted the attention of the City of New York and the city of San Francisco Bay respectively.

Since then it has been used in many places in the United States with success and saving of first costs for this type of expensive construction.

The field engineering on the tunnel was done by high school graduates, trained in the department. The tunnel, three thousand feet long and containing seven angles, was worked from both ends at once and met about two thousand feet from the south heading. The surveying work of these young men had been done so carefully that the work joined exactly on line and within one-half inch of grade.

The construction of this plant with its new inlet siphon and outfall sewer to Lake Erie gave Lakewood a modern plant and removed the menace of pollution from Rocky River.

To make this plant most effective, it was necessary at a later date to construct Edgewater Interceptor from the plant north on West Clifton to Edgewater drive and along Edgewater drive, as then proposed, to Nicholson avenue. This sewer intercepts the sanitary sewage which heretofore had been discharged into the Lake and brought it to the plant. It is so planned that it may be extended to Highland avenue as necessity dictates. The construction of this interceptor placed Lakewood in the position of having made a very material advance in cleaning up its lake front and ceasing to pollute the water supply in the lake. Further work will have to be done to make this a complete job.

In addition to the protection shore waters, an interceptor was constructed along Riverside drive to protect the Rocky River Valley against pollution. This main sewer drains a part of the West Park section of Cleveland, lying between Warren road and Rocky River as far south as Puritas Springs road.

Even before the Cleveland Metropolitan Park System came into existence, it was recognized that the River valley would ultimately be recreational areas and to protect the Lakewood end of this valley, this interceptor was enlarged to take sewage from the territory south of the city.

The plant at the present time needs improvements and enlargement, which must be taken care of in the very near future.

The other major problem, that of adequate water supply, pressed very hard and still does at times.

After a study of the situation, in 1914 it was proposed to erect our own plant and a bond issue for $750,000 was submitted, but lost by just a few votes. Lakewood came nearest at that time of making a competent start to be independent of Cleveland in the matter of water supply.

Conditions were so critical that there were times when pressures in mains along Detroit street were low as five pounds per square inch. It was necessary to curtail sprinkling in order to have any degree of fire protection. Either Cleveland was unable or willing to boost pump pressures to overcome friction in pipes and so later a twenty-four inch main was laid from Highland avenue to Warren road to Detroit street was built to tap the center of low pressure. This recovered the pressure lost in friction in the smaller mains to such an extent that it was possible to abandon the storage tank (560,000 gallons capacity) on Warren road.

The large main on Clifton boulevard was later extended to Rocky River Bridge by the County to furnish a supply to Rocky River and Bay Village. This was done under an agreement with Lakewood, whereby Lakewood acquired a half interest in this main for the right-of-way in Clifton, West Clifton and Sloane avenue.

This solved, so far as mains were concerned, the low service water supply problem.

As the district south of Madison avenue developed, troubles began to be experienced in this first high service district, on which complaints from Lakewood and other districts in and out of Cleveland, lead to the $59,000,000 work program for the Cleveland water supply. This was cut to $4,000,000 by Mayor Miller of Cleveland, but for Lakewood first high service, the construction of Parma Reservoir will add materially to the pressure in this district.

The question of actual supply being taken care of, leaves only the question of price paid for water at Lakewood city limits.

Wholesale rates for water has long been the subject of bitter debate, and at the present moment Lakewood enjoys the cheapest wholesale rate to any municipality served by Cleveland, but in excess of the wholesale rate charged to industries using comparable amounts of water within the borders of Cleveland. This situation is wholly unjust to Lakewood. Because of the law, Lakewood is unable to present this case to the Public Utilities Commission for adjustment, leaving but two alternatives, either pay the price Cleveland will agree to accept or build our own plant and serve our citizens water at a reduced cost.

After 1920 Lakewood enjoyed a remarkable real estate and building boom. For more than eighteen months, homes went up at the rate of over a million dollars a month and thereafter as the demand was being satisfied, building went on at a slower rate.

In 1916, the Department persuaded the Council to establish the rule that no allotment would be accepted which did not have the streets graded, sidewalks, sewer and water in and paid for. This rule saved the general taxpayers several million dollars interest, city portion of public improvements and limitations on public debt and the pledging of the faith, revenue and credit of the city for the redemption of improvement bonds. This rule also put economic brakes on land speculation for no proposer of an allotment scheme would then sink money in improvements unless he saw a reasonably ready market for the lots. The net result of this policy has been that the city has practically no special assessment debt lower than it would be otherwise.

Prior to the real estate boom, a very great portion of the land south of Madison was not laid out except for such scattered streets as Carabel, Warren road, Bunts road and Pleasant Hill Land Company Allotment. The Department was without authority to plat this land, but a plan was devised for this whole area and adherence obtained to the greatest degree possible. This lead to many long and hard fought arguments with allotters of land, but in the main, the general plan prevailed. Without such a plan, unauthoritative though it was, much property value would have been destroyed.

The land development around the year 1920 saw also the purchase of Lakewood Park, Lincoln Park (now controlled by The Cleveland Metropolitan Park System under agreements) and Madison Park. These added 120 acres to the Park System.

In 1917 the development of Edgewater Drive was started by a group of interested citizens and the route of this was platted from Highland avenue to Webb road and recorded. The effect of this recording was that no allotment scheme could be developed without recognizing the drive. The sections from Wilbert road to Parkside and from Kenneth drive to Webb road and from Highland avenue to Cove avenue have been opened up and developed into very high class property. This section between Abbieshire and Summit was opened under an allotment scheme. The section between Maple Cliff and Summit was abandoned by a previous Council on protest from property owners. The reopening of this thorofare across fully developed territory will in the future be a very expensive undertaking.

This period also saw the repaving of Detroit street, the repaving of Detroit street, the repaving of Clifton boulevard and the paving of Madison avenue and Hilliard road. Along with the paving of Madison avenue came the street railway, which gave a very great impetus to the development south of Madison avenue.

In order to protect the millions being spent publicly and privately in Lakewood, zoning studies were inaugurated in 1910 and a zoning plan developed and presented for adoption. Then followed a year and a half of meetings, discussions, debate and finally in February 1922 the Zoning Law amended and the plan as altered was adopted. From that time to this, it has stood as a bulwark to protect the property owner against invasion by disorderly development or use of land that would steal the value which the property owner by his thrift and application had built up for himself and the community. The remarkable thing about it is that the status quo of the zoning has been maintained almost entirely by the citizens who have opposed any change in zoning which threatened the stability of the ordinance in protecting this area as a home owning communtity.

From time to time there have been movements to "open up" the city to apartments but these have quite generally gone down to defeat at the hands of the citizens.

As the city grew, the disposal of refuse became an increasingly acute problem. Two methods had been tried: Contract collection and disposal, city collection and contract disposal. The contract collection and disposal proved unsatisfactory because complete collection was not always made and the contractor found difficulty in keeping points of disposal by dumping open for use. Finally the department developed a low frame body wagon and the city undertook its own collection system. Disposal was made to Stadler's Reduction Works and the city received an income from garbage delivered to the plant. As the price of garbage grease fell the city lost its income from this source and finally paid as high as $2.50 per ton for disposal after hauling the garbage to the plant by truck.

The horse drawn collection equipment was subsquently replaced by motor driven equipment and the garbage was hauled to farms at varying distances from the city. As this was proving increasingly expensive competitive bids were taken and the contract method of disposal again resorted to.

The city paid $1.63 per ton for disposal under this method.

An examination into the costs of disposal by incineration developed the fact that material savings could be made by this method and the department developed specifications for this type of disposal. Then ensued a long, bitter and hard fought battle to locate and build the plant. After seven years of litigation and delays bids were finally accepted and in 1931, the city completed and put into service the present incinerator.

It has proven a money saver in the cost of final sanitary disposal and has had a remarkable secondary benefit of keeping the city cleaned up continuously for combustible material thereby greatly reducing the fire hazard.

During the recent depression years the department has done its full share in providing plans for work relief for our citizens. Before C.W.A., the program of street widening had started in which funds from gas tax and and motor car registration was used to supply funds for these improvements.

Citizens who appealed for work were put to work in this type of construction and as the list of unemployed mounted, the administration developed the stagger system of employment, which worked very well until the unemployed list reached 2800 at which time the C.W.A. started.

From the beginning of Federal work relief, Lakewood in its participation determined to do only such work as would have lasting benefits and has not departed from this policy. The administration believes that taxpayers' money is sacred money, and shall not be wasted.

The City Engineer was asked to head a committee of citizens to develop a program for the entire county under F.E.R.A. This committee working nights and Sundays for several months reviewed in detail $177,000,000.00 of proposed work, classified it as to type, desirability, number of man months and finally made its report.

The net result was the allocation to this county of many of more millions of dollars for work relief than was thought possible when the Federal Government reviewed the report.

The department has developed plans for widening on practically all the intersections of side streets with Madison and Detroit avenues to afford greater safety at these intersections and to provide parking space off the main thorofares; the widening of Madison and Detroit avenue pavements; the widening of Bunts road, Franklin boulevard and Edgewater drive; the repaving of Sloane avenue; improvements of tennis courts in Madison, Lakewood and Wagar Parks; the elimination of a ditch in Lakewood Park; relief sewers on Clifton boulevard, Homewood drive and on Lake avenue where serious sewer difficulties occured.

The department working with the Department of Building, developed plans for a band stand in Lakewood Park, a boiler house for Lakewood hospital and a city garage on the incinerator site.

The routine of application and following through all governmental red tape has fallen to this department.

These efforts on behalf of the unemployed in this city has given work to many not only in Lakewood, but also to others in the Cleveland district when the labor was not available in Lakewood.

The department from its inception, has never had more than eleven employees and is now down to seven members. This small, compact organization has been responsible for the development and building of about ten million dollars of public works at about twenty percent less cost than similar work of equal quality is done elsewhere.

The policies initiated by this department and the methods of handling contractors and public works is responsible for a saving to the public in these twenty-two years of about three million dollars so that the department has very much more than paid its way in service rendered.

In addition to the preparation of plans and the supervision of work, the department has developed and presented data in connection with rate cases with the East Ohio Gas Company, Cleveland Water Department and the Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company; it has data and studies in connection with local water rates; it has many times bridged gaps in service in other city departments and acted generally in consulting capacity to other departments in matters related to engineering. It has prepared and presented data and maps in court cases and assisted at the trial table in the trial of suits against the city.

This inter-department service is significant of the harmony of purpose existing in the city administration from the Mayor down, in the effort to give maximum service to Lakewood citizens.

The City Engineer, the Assistant City Engineer and the Engineer of Design have all been with the city for more than twenty-one years which is in inself a commentary on the respect which the succeeding administrations have had for real civil service.

The department has done its work quietly and without ostentation, having in mind always to give efficient, faithful service to the fine citizenry they serve.